TAY Project
Marmara File
Aegean File
Mediterranean File
Southeast Anatolia File
Central Anatolia File
Black Sea-Eastern Anatolia File
Black Sea-Eastern Anatolia File
Destruction Report


The inventory of archaeological sites in Turkey, as compiled over a decade by the Archaeological Settlements of Turkey - TAY Project, is based on sites documented by archeological surveys and excavations from the 1880s to the present. Explorative fieldwork was necessitated by the scattered and disorganized nature of the existing documentation. With the above mentioned necessities the fieldwork became inevitable. That is how the foundation of  TAY Expeditions (TAYEx – TAY Expedition) was composed. The first phase aiming at the prehistoric settlements started in 2000, and was completed in 2004. The second, and last phase was performed in 2008, and it covered the Byzantine period buildings in Marmara Region.

The Results of Six Years of Fieldwork

The first phase of the explorative fieldwork covering prehistorical period, that started in 2000, was completed, and all of the settlements/find-spots ranging between Paleolithic and Early Bronze Age have been scanned with regards to the seven geographical regions system. Settlements of Marmara-Aegean in 2000, Meditarranean-Southeastern Anatolia in 2001, Central Anatolia in 2002, Black Sea-Eastern Anatolia in 2003 and settlements located in some provinces that could not be visited before due to bad weather or security concerns were documented in 2004. As a result, data regarding published sites have been verified and updated; the geographical position of settlements/find-spots has been clearly fixed by means of new technologies; a visual archive of Turkey's archaeology has been created; and all of this have been shared with the scientific community and the public through printed and electronic media.

Throughout the 6 years in which TAYEx activities were carried out;

- A team comprising of almost 150 people were involved,
- A total of 67,528 miles were covered,
- And over 3300 settlements/buildings were documented, accompanied by reports, coordinates, and measurements.

As an outcome;

- 37.693 (51 Gb) digital photographs were taken,
- 11.102 analog slides were produced,
- 245 Gb of video was recorded.

Explorative fieldwork has shown that buildings which were used in recent periods in addition to prehistoric settlements, such as mounds and caves, though no less culturally significant than the more visible late period sites and even though they are not visually appealing for tourism revenue in the modern sense, have been intensely damaged. Based on this finding, an annual report called “Archaeological Destruction in Turkey” was prepared in Turkish and in English. Covering the present survey area, the report was sent to 600 related persons and institutions at home and abroad following a press conference. Data on the causes, types, and distribution of the destruction were categorized and published for the use of the scientific and administrative communities (The web version of these reports’summaries can be accessed by clicking the corresponding region’s link on the left. The complete versions of the region reports are available as .pdf documents in each corresponding web page).

49 museums located within our expedition area were provided with the results of our activity in the region throughout the first phase of TAYEx. Detailed lists of the settlements/structures documented by TAY Project were delivered to related museums, and feedback was received from 30 museums regarding the registration status of settlements/structures  (including information about natural preservation areas). This interaction initiated by our project helps museums in keeping track of detailed information about the archaeological settlements/structures  which had already been explored as well as providing them with database support for the facilitation and expansion of registration procedures. We would thus like to extend our gratitude to the museums, particularly those in Adana, Adiyaman, Afyon, Ankara, Antalya, Bilecik, Burdur, Bursa, Diyarbakir, Gaziantep, Istanbul, Karaman, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kirklareli, Kirsehir, Kilis, Konya, Konya-Eregli, Kütahya, Malatya, Mardin, Milas, Nevsehir, Nigde, Sivas, Tekirdag, Tokat and Usak for giving us feedback.

Observations – Suggestions

The explorative fieldwork activities have led us to highlight some facts, which were already emphasized in previous reports. They are summarized below:

- The public and the governmental organizations that indirectly contribute to the destruction through their careless activities should be informed about how mounds, cave formations, find-spots, structures and archaeological settlements were composed.

- Registration procedures for known and visible mounds/structures should immediately be initiated and ongoing registration applications should be finalized without further delay.

- Preservation measures should be increased at registered settlements/structures, and the sanctioning of construction by status downgrading should never be allowed.

- The cultural and historical heritage should not be articulated only for touristic purposes.

- A healthy coordination should be established between all related bodies for the preservation of cultural heritage.

- The remains of ancient cultures become commodities when branded ‘cultural heritage’. We should instead use the term ‘cultural trust’, which would more accurately emphasize the concept as something that we need to preserve for future generations, not as something that was preserved for us so that we could spend it freely.


Our observations and suggestions summarized above and in regional reports are aimed at not losing more, at developing urgent solutions, and at taking necessary precautions against the loss of this irreplaceable heritage which we believe should be thought of not as 'cultural heritage' but as 'cultural trust'.

We at TAY Project will press on with our main responsibility, completing and consistently updating the inventory of archaeological settlements in Turkey and sharing that with the public. Meanwhile, we will continue to monitor the destruction in our country, which we define as “intense, widespread, and continuous”, and accordingly, we will notify the national and international community and authorities over and over again.

Furthermore, as made clear in all of our reports, we are prepared to share our 16 years' worth of experience and knowledge on destruction and on other issues with any person or organization that believes in the necessity of investigating and preserving cultural heritage and passing this knowledge on to further generations, and to those who regard themselves as “hosts, not guests” in this country.

Exploration Teams


Oguz Tanindi (team leader), Mete Aksan, Banu Aydinoglugil, Bekir Kosker, Bike Yazicioglu.
Additional field team: Ahmet Boratav, Yuksel Dede, Burçin Erdogu, Tarik Guçluturk, Senay Seba.
Visitors: Murat Akman, Nalan Firat.


Mihriban Ozbasaran (team leader), Gunay Koçhan, Bekir Kosker, Enis Tartan, Zeynep Turkay.
Additional field team: Burçin Erdogu, Oguz Tanindi, Bike Yazicioglu.


Oguz Tanindi (team leader), Kerim Bayer, Çetin Karakus, Bekir Kosker, Serhan Mutlu, Semiha Okan, Ayse Orhun, Senay Seba, Enis Tartan, Zeynep Turkay, Turhan Ulgur, Nurcan Yalman.

Southeastern Anatolia:

Gul Pulhan/Ahmet Boratav (team leaders), Mete Aksan, Kadir Durmus, Çetin Karakus, Bekir Kosker, Serhan Mutlu, Enis Tartan, Bike Yazicioglu.

Central Anatolia:

Mihriban Ozbasaran, Oguz Tanindi, Gulay Sert (team leaders), Gonca Baviker, Bulent Cennet, Kadir Durmus, Cafer Emre, Ilkay Ivgin, Çetin Karakus, Nurcan Kayacan, Serhan Mutlu, Sahan Nuhoglu, Semiha Okan, Deniz Uygun, Turhan Ulgur, Nazmi Uney, Kahraman Yayla.
Logistical support team: Oktay Alper, Ahmet Boratav, Aslan Gençer, Ayse Orhun.

Black Sea and Eastern Anatolia:

Oguz Tanindi, Gülay Sert, Serhan Mutlu (team leaders), Lerzan Akkaplan, Tülin Avci, Sezai Aydemir, Gizem Bas, Mehmetcan Biber, A.Bülent Cennet, Abdullah Degerli, Ayse Dilsiz, Saner Gülsöken, Serkan Gürkan, Ilkay Ivgin, Pinar Kandal, Kadri Kaya, Özgen Kurt, Ebru Lafçi, Özgür Parlak, Deniz Uygun, Nazmi Üney, Kahraman Yayla.
Logistical support team: Oktay Alper, Ahmet Boratav, Rüçhan Ziya.

Inner Aegean and Western Central Anatolia:

Oguz Tanindi and Burçin Erdoğu (team leaders), Ayse Dilsiz, Ilkay Ivgin, Ebru Durmaz, Deniz Uygun, Ali Kabas, Kerim Benhisavi.
Logistical support team: Oktay Alper, Ahmet Boratav, Rüçhan Ziya.

Marmara - Byzantine:

Ayça Tiryaki (team leader), Özgen Kurt, Burcu Ciner, Cem Ersavaci, Görkem Kizilkayak, Doguhan Koçer, Zeliha Sen, Emre Üstündag, Tugçe Yenilmez, Diyana Yirmi, Kahraman Yayla.
Logistical support team: Oguz Tanindi, Ayse Didem Bayvas.

Reports prepared by

Marmara-Ege (2000):

Oguz Tanindi, Mihriban Ozbasaran and Marmara and Aegen team members of TAYEx.

Editorial contributions provided by: Ahmet Boratav, Nuzhet Dalfes, Burçin Erdogu, Fusun Ertug, Necmi Iletmis, Hasan Keseroglu, Bekir Kosker, Baris Pirhasan, Gul Pulhan, Ertugrul Tekin, Aksel Tibet, Bike Yazicioglu.

English translation: Ertugrul Tekin, Bike Yazicioglu.

Mediterranean-SE Anatolia (2001):

Oguz Tanindi, Senay Seba and Mediterranean and SE Anatolia team members of TAYEx.

Editorial contributions provided by: Nuzhet Dalfes, Burçin Erdogu, Mihriban Ozbasaran, Hulya Tokmak.

English translation: Mete Aksan, Ertugrul Tekin.

Central Anatolia (2002):

Oguz Tanindi, Semiha Okan and Central Anatolia team members of TAYEx.

Editorial contributions provided by: Mihriban Ozbasaran, Gulay Sert, Burçin Erdogu, Deniz Uygun, Ruçhan Ziya, Rennan Nisanci, Kerim Bayer, Hulya Tokmak.

English translation: Ertugrul Tekin.

Black Sea-Eastern Anatolia (2003):

Oguz Tanindi, Ayse Dilsiz, Deniz Uygun and Central Anatolia team members of TAYEx.

Editorial contributions provided by: Gulay Sert, Mihriban Ozbasaran.

English translation: Kerim Bayer, Pervin Yanikkaya Aydemir.

Marmara - Byzantine (2008):

Oguz Tanindi, Özgen Kurt and Marmara Byzantine Period team members of TAYEx.

Editorial contributions provided by: Engin Akyürek, Ayse Didem Bayvas, Ayça Tiryaki.

English translation: Pervin Yanikkaya Aydemir, Cengiz Aydemir.

TAYEx Supporters

We extend our deepest thanks to those who have supported the TAYEx field teams, before, during and after the Marmara, Aegean, Mediterranean, SE, Central Anatolia and Marmara-Byzantine expeditions. (In chronological order)


Alpay Pasinli - Director, General Directorate of Monuments and Museums
Kenan Yurttagul - Deputy Director, General Directorate of Monuments and Museums
Mehmet Akif Isin - Director, Tekirdag Archaeological Museum
Nurten Sevinç - Director, Çanakkale Archaeological Museum
Çigdem Turker - Çanakkale Archaeological Museum
Sait Basaran - President, Dept. of Restorations (Istanbul University-Faculty of Letters)
Yuksel Dede - Faculty member, Dept. of Restorations (Istanbul University-Faculty of Letters)
Neriman Ozaydin - Director, Balikesir Museum
Fikret Toksoz - Secretary General, Union of the Municipalities of the Marmara Region
Fisun Çetin - Deputy Secretary General, Union of the Municipalities of the Marmara Region
Ali Saribas - Mayor, Çan
Erdal Budak - Editor-in-chief, Erdek Municipality
Hulusi Ay - Sergeant-at-arms, Erdek Municipality
Altin Soylu - Dogus Holding
Ocal Ozeren - Director, Bursa Archaeological Museum
Kadir Mete - Mayor, Pazaryeri
Ismail Bas - Mayor, Vezirhan


Ahmet Yaras - Director, Bergama Museum
Sevgi Soyaker - Bergama Museum
Arif Ekinci - Technical Director, Pinar Un
Mustafa Daloglu - Dal-Pet Camping /Gaziemir
Huseyin Teoman - Researcher, Izmir Archaeological Museum
Oguz Bostanci - Baklatepe excavation
Sukru Tul - Archaeologist
Ayse Zulkadiroglu - Museum of Efes Selçuk
Mustafa Bukukkolanci - Museum of Efes Selçuk
Cengiz Içten - Museum of Efes Selçuk
Ozgen Karaca - Director, Department of Culture of Aydin
Rafet Dinç - Director, Tralleis excavation
Hasan Huseyin Baysal - Director, Denizli Museum
Ali Ceylan - Denizli Museum
Nesrin Karabay - Denizli Museum
Suleyman Yildizhan - Yildizhan Hotel/Pamukkale
Hasan Gumus - Editor-in-chief, Çivril Municipality
Metin Baytur - Dean, School of Medicine, Afyon University
Hayat Erkanal - Director, Liman Tepe excavation
Tayfun Caymaz - Archaeologist, Liman Tepe excavation
Muharrem Bayar - Principal, Bolvadin Anadolu High School
Cumali Ayabakan - Director, Afrodisias Museum
Lutfu Ulukaya - Director, Çivril Public Library
Hasan Ersoy - Librarian, Çivril Public Library
Turgay Unal - MD
Munir Saylan - Geography Teacher
Mumtaz Baskaya - Teacher
Seracettin Sahin - Director, Afyon Museum
Mehmet Onduç - General Manager, Ikbal
Halil Arça - Researcher, Afyon Museum
Nurettin Buyuktarcan - Village executive, Dutluca
Ibrahim Sezgin - Deputy Mayor, Tavsanli
And all villagers and village executives...


Lutfu Kuçukkubas - Deputy Secretary, Akdeniz University
Bulent Mutluer - Dean, Faculty of Veterinary, Akdeniz University
Ufuk Yildirim - Principal of Tefenni Agricultural Vocational High School
Hasan Kandemir - Principal of Elmali Vocational College
Selami Bozkurt - Secretary of Elmali Vocational College
Emre Unsev - NOVUM Tours
Sefa Gurman - Antalya Erman Camping
Harun Taskiran - Associate Professor, Ankara University DTCF
Enver Ozturk - Bucak Ostrich Farm
Ahmet Dayi - Sav Village Turk Petrol Gas Station
Mustafa Akarslan - Director, Isparta Museum
Gultekin Dabanca - Director, Egirdir Tourism Department
Mustafa Akarslan - Manager, Egirdir Camping
Tekin Bayram - Mayor of Yalvaç
Adil Bayindir - Mayor of Beysehir
Ilhame Ozturk - Director, Silifke Archaeological Museum
Dilara Ozden - Dept. of Recreational Parks, Municipality of Mersin
Haluk Ipek - Chancellor of Mustafa Kemal University
Aslihan Yener - Associate Professor, University of Chicago
Hatice Pamir - Associate Professor, Mustafa Kemal University
Osman Gemici - 1st Lieutenant Commander, 4th Company, Reyhanli
Selim Kapur - Director, Archeometry Dept., Çukurova University
Burak Koroglu - Postgraduate Fellow, Archeometry Dept., Çukurova University
Funda Guk - Archaeologist
Lutfu Dere - Kahramanmaras MOil Gas Station
Ahmet Denizhanogullari - Director, Kahramanmaras Museum

Southeastern Anatolia

Kemal Sertok - Director, Gaziantep Archaeological Museum
Rifat Ergeç - Associate Professor, Gaziantep University
Eyup Bucak - Director, Urfa Archaeological Museum
Jale Velibeyoglu - TAÇDAM Coordinator
Selma Yilmaz - GAP-GIDEM Investment Specialist

Central Anatolia

Raif Ziya - TAÇ Plast
Haluk Gurgen - Vice President, Eskisehir Anatolia University
Ali Turkcan - Associate Professor, Archaeology Dept, Eskisehir Anatolia University
Halil Demirdelen - Museum of Anatolian Civilizations
Muammer Aksoy - County Executive, Polatli
Hulusi Tarhan - Education Secretary, Polatli County
Mustafa Korpe - Principal, Polatli Industrial Vocational School
Gulsen Dogan - Director, Ataturk Cultural Center
Nusret Acar - Director, Cankiri County Department of Culture
Recep Dogan - Editor-in-Chief, Bayat Municipality
Ismet Ediz - President, Corum Museum
Onder Ipek - Corum Museum
Banu Çilingir - Corum Museum
Ali Çakar - Director, Ugurludag County Department of Agriculture
Unsal Turgut - Bogazliyan OPET Oil Station
Hamdi Biçer - Director, Kayseri Archaeology Museum
Sema Aslan - General Secretary, Erciyes University
Celal Kirca - Dean of Faculty of Theology, Erciyes University
Oguz Kaya - Paris Motel and Camping
Fuat Altiok - Hacibektas Fuat Baba Pension
Murat Demirbilek - Hacibektas Museum
Adnan Guçlu - Director, Kirsehir Museum
Tahsin Kosker - Financial Director, Agriculture Department, Kirsehir Province
Mubaat Guneyli - Editor-in-Chief, Ortakoy County Administration
Faruk Tosun - Administrator, Salt Plants
Murat Deveci - Salt Plants
Yucel Kiper - Director, Aksaray Museum
Yusuf Gur - Director, Aksaray Touristic Establishments
Erol Faydali - Director, Nigde Museum
Nadi Erkekli - Director, Nigde TEDAS Power Distribution Plant
Sabahattin Çoban - Manager, Ulukisla Forestry Service
Kamil Bulbulokuyucu - Mayor, Karapinar Municipality
Musa Ceyhan - Director, Karapinar Municipality Environmental Protection and Social Services Department
Serafettin Serim - Mayor, Akcasehir Municipality
Sait Asgin - Lieutenant Governor, Karaman
Mehmet Dogan - Director, Karaman Museum
Sunay Turker - Representative, Konya chapter of AA
Saygun Sirkeci - Director, Karaman Rural Services and Development
Erol Osman Ersavas - Provincial Director, Karaman Rural Affairs Department
Ilker Ozturk - Manager, Beysehir Teacher Housing
Hasan Tasdelen - Director, Education Department, Beysehir County
Hasan Bahar - History Department, Selcuk University
Veysel Gules - Director, Local Administrations Department, Konya Province
Firat Ozturk - Commander, Akoren Gendarme Headquarters
Gurbuz Karakus - County Executive, Aksehir
Ferda Ileri - County Executive, Sarayonu
Ayhan Alp - Director, Board of Cultural and Natural Resources Preservation, Konya
Shahina Farid - Field Manager, Catalhoyuk Excavation
Lutfi Akçeken - Director, Konya Rural Affairs Department

Black Sea and Eastern Anatolia

Kayhan Kavas - Ministry of the Interior, General Director of Municipalities
K.Ali Esener - Ministry of the Interior, General Command of the Gendarme, Plan and Principles Dept. Commander
Seyhan-Hadi Ivgin - TAY Vezirköprü Team
Adil Karaoglanoglu - Mayor of Kumru
Levent Aksu - Teacher, M. Akif Highschool
Hidayet Aydin - S.Y.D. Foundation (Mesudiye)
Mustafa Erkmen - Director, Erzurum Archaeological Museum
Güler Barin - Erzurum Archaeological Museum
Birol Güngör - Erzurum Archaeological Museum
Alpaslan Ceylan - Associate Professor, Atatürk University (Erzurum)
Yücel Askin - Chancellor, Yüzüncü Yil University (Van)
Aynur Özfirat - Dept. of Archaeology, Yüzüncü Yil University (Van)
Ergun Çelik - Principal, Dicle University, Medical Vocational College (Siirt)
DSI Personnel - Bulanik County
Ömer Topaloglu - Teacher, Firat University Elazig Vocational College
Duran Güler - Village Executive, Yenipayam Village (Elazig/Baskil)
Aydin Dursun - History teacher, Baskil High School
Haci Öztürk - Education Secretary, Baskil County
Murat Mese - Director, Baskil County Executive Office
Selahattin Eyüp - Director, Malatya Archaeological Museum
Ali Cengiz - Deputy Principal, Malatya Ministry of Culture and Tourism
Erdal Kiliç - Yudum Restaurant (Malatya)
Aycan Günsoy - Kangal County Commander of the Gendarme
Salih Köse - Pasabahçe Scout School Guard (Sivas)
Mehmet Yilmaz - Sivas Province Command of the Gendarme
Hikmet Kuru - Chief Editor, Hürdogan Newspaper
Hayati Yalçin - State Hydraulic Works Atakum District (Samsun)
Aydin Göksu - State Hydraulic Works (Sinop)
Kadir Köseren - State Hydraulic Works (Sinop)
Tahsin Asan - State Hydraulic Works (Bafra)
Fuat Dereli - Sinop Archaeological Museum
Gürsoy Ögütogullari - Erfelek County Commander of the Gendarme
Ahmet Güler - Director, Local Administrations Department (Amasya)
Mustafa Seref - Kastamonu Province Command of the Gendarme

Marmara - Byzantine

Cengiz - Arda CHP District Director (Vize)
Mustafa H. Sayar - Professor, Uni. of Istanbul, Fac. of Letters
Ibrahim Özdobaç - Uni. of Istanbul, Edirne Southeastern Europe Research Inst.
Süleyman Pehlivan - Uni. of Istanbul, Edirne Southeastern Europe Research Inst.
Rüstem Aslan - Associate Professor, 18 Mart University, Archaeology Dept.
Sait Basaran - Professor,Uni. of Istanbul, Fac. of Letters
Mahmut Çaylak - Archaeologist, Enez Excavation Team
Sevinç ve Fevzi Kurt - Bandirma
Kerim Benhisavi - Keramet Village
Mustafa Kara - Village Executive (Tahtali)
Aziz Elbas - Plan and Project Manager, Osmangazi Municipality
Murat Baslar - BAY Project
Muhammet Yazar - Plan and Project Manager, Osmangazi Municipality
Fikret Yörük - First Secretary, Zeytinbagi Municipality
Muhittin Bakan - Kocaeli
Yavuz Ulugün - Kocaeli
Numan Gülsah - President, Çekül (Izmit)
Serdar Kusku - Bursa
Gazi Ayakbasan - Bursa
Adil Can ve Rauf Güven - Adil Can&Nursan Art Atelier (Iznik)
Taylan Sevil - Ex Director, Iznik Museum
Adnan Gümüs - Guard, Gümüspinar Village
Ergin Keklikçi - Director, Gülhane Park
Halil Arca - Assistant Manager, Ayasofya Museum
Aysel Çötelioglu - Assistant Manager, Topkapi Palace Museum
Gülcan Kongaz - Archaeologist, Istanbul Archaeology Museum
Feridun Özgümüs - Lecturer, Uni. of Istanbul, Fine Arts Dept.
Nilüfer Türedi - Assistant, Fatih Municipality

And all villagers and village executives...

This reports are published and distributed with the sponsorship of
TASK (History, Archaeology, Art and Cultural Heritage) Foundation,

Ege Publishing Co.,
Suna and Inan Kiraç Foundation - Istanbul Research Institute.

Copyright © 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2009 by TAY Project

.. TAY Project . Kuruçesme Cad. 67/B
34345 Kuruçesme Istanbul Turkey
Tel: +90 (212) 265 7858
Fax: +90 (212) 287 1298
e.mail: info@tayproject.org

Copyright©1998 TAY Project