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1000 m
Central Anatolia
Investigation Method:
Early Phrygian Middle Phrygian Late Phrygian


Location: The site lies south of the city of Çorum; west-northwest of the Alaca District.
Geography and Environment: Höyük Village has been moved away from the site for touristic purposes. The 13-15 m high; ovoid mound measures 310x275 m. The mound appears to have two cones due to its south and northeast elevations and the defile between these elevations. There is the grave of a saint on the southern elevation. Fresh water springs; called Çigdemlik; lie close to the mound. The surroundıng fertile lands of the mound are located in the valley irrigated by the Horam Özü Stream that joins with Budaközü around Sungurlu and empties into Halys. Although it has no connection with the Alaca District; the site was named Alaca as the only road that went to Höyük Village passed from the Alaca District in 1930-35. This name continues to be used.
Research and Excavation: Introduced by W.G. Hamilton in 1835, it aroused attention of many travelers particularly with its reliefs and statues from the Hittite Period. A small excavation was conducted around the Sphinx Gate by T. Macridy Bey in 1907. The site was, later on, excavated upon encouragement of Atatürk by R. O. Arik in 1935, followed by a team under the direction of H.Z. Kosay and M. Akok until 1983, and the remains were restored by M. Akok. Recent excavations initiated by A. Çinaroglu in 1997 are mainly related with the Phrygian and Hittite Periods. It takes place in the registered archaeological sites list prepared by Ministry of Culture and Tourism.
Stratigraphy: Long years of excavations under the direction of Arik, Kosay and Akok yielded 15 building levels lasting from the Chalcolithic Age until the Iron Age, categorized in four main settlement phases. The Phyrgian Level is found on the first layer from 750 BC. Based on the results from 2007 Phrygian settlement was more dense towards the center of the mound and reflected Alacahöyük village culture during Late Phrygian period [Çınaroglu-Çelik 2009:97].
Small Finds: Architecture: The ruins of the Phrygian level has been heavily destroyed during the later periods as they were very close to the surface. During the recent excavations, the grid squares LXI-LXIII/45-47 and LIX-LXI/36-38 yielded a kiln base, a ventilation channel erected with large stones, and foundations of buildings erected with large stones in the east-west, north-south directions in the Late Phrygian fire level. It was found that this building was a megaron as a result of the comparison between the walls unearthed during 2005 excavations and the precedent years in Phrygian level [Çinaroglu-Çelik 2007: 306]. A room was found at a jewelry workshop in Hittite building level in 2005 containing many gold, silver, bronze and various pots. The most important detail on the room is that it contained water canals [Çinaroglu-Çelik 2007:307]. Two phase walls were found surrounding the megaron during 2007 excavations [Çinaroglu-Çelik 2009:96]. Phrygian structures without homogenity and their cereal storage were revealed during 2008 excavations inside trench I which was made for unearthing a Hittite mine workshop. The round cereal storage had walls built in dry technique. The dry wall system underneath the ground level had neatly placed stones on the inside but the outside wall's stones were placed in a disorderly way. The Phrygian structures were apparently built with double layers of walls. Simple round holes were encountered inside the Phrygian culture level at trench II. Some of these were used as dumps, and some for cereal storage. A round and a square shaped cereal storages unearthed at that area were built by carving underneath the ground. The stones on the internal walls of those were neatly placed but the ones on the outside were left in their natural form. The bottom of the storages were also stone paved [Çinaroglu-Çelik 2010:91-92]. Many round pits from Culture Level I form Phrygia are encountered in 2009. Some of these are functioned as waste pits and others as granaries while some are used as graves. The total number of skeletons has risen to 7 with the two adults skeletons found in 2009. Many furnace bases are located during the metal workshops which are not well-preserved. Extensions of stone walls which were found during previous years are encountered in the same square plan [Çinaroglu-Çelik 2011: 184-185]. In 2010, the excavations were conducted around 3 stone walled Late Phrygian Storage which were partly exposed in 2008 in Phrygian culture level. During these studies, it has been found out that these storages were similar with the ones previously found. They were built by burying the ground. The stones on the internal walls of those were neatly placed but the ones on the outside were left in their natural form. The storages have compressed floors and the floors were partly covered stones [Çinaroglu-Çelik 2012:284-285]. In 2013, remains of structure belonging to Phrygian cultural layer were exposed in the trenches located in the northwest of the mound. In the east section of the trench, a structure with four rooms was found. This structure is called Structure A. The walls of Room O1 of the structure were built with medium sized flat stones. The room is about 110 cm in width. The north and east wall of the Room O2 were exposed. The room is 454x131 cm in width. In the room fill, a rhyton belonging to Late Phrygian Period was found. Room O3 is 110x90 cm in width. A floor paved with stone was exposed at the northeast corner. During the excavations, another structure dated to Late Phrygian Period was encountered. Only the northeast corner of this structure called O20 was preserved. Small fragments of stone pavement were found on the floor of this room. The studies revealed that Late Phrygian cultural layer is presented by two different phases [Çinaroglu-Çelik 2015:177-178]. Pottery: In 2006 Late Phrygian period amorphous polychrome and monochrome pottery was revealed in Phrygian level [Çinaroglu-Çelik 2008:526]. Amorphous decorated sherds worth studying were revealed in 2007 besides decorated trefoil mouthed jug, double-handle jar, two reels, single handled jug [Çinaroglu-Çelik 2009:96]. The monochromatic single handle jug and two double-handle amphora revealed during 2008 excavations inside trench I, which was made for unearthing the remaining section of a Hittite mine workshop suggested that the Phrygian structure remains belonged to late period [Çinaroglu-Çelik 2010:90-91]. Many painted Phrygian pottery pieces and a trefoil mouthed mug is captured beside the skeletons are captured in the graves in Culture Level I in 2009 [Çinaroglu-Çelik 2011: 184].
Interpretation and Dating:

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