©The Archaeological Settlements of Turkey - TAY Project

Akaršay Tepe

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Akaršay Tepe
355 m
Southeastern Anatolia
Investigation Method:
Aceramic Ceramic


Location: This site lies west of the city of Sanliurfa; south of the town of Birecik and west and partially under the village of Akaršay. The Elementary School of the village is partially built over the mound.
Geography and Environment: The Akaršaytepe mound-site is located south of Su Stream which is a small a tributary of the Euphrates and it lies on alluvial deposits. The dimensions of the mound; which consists of two small hills; are 150 m north-south and 350 m east-west. The mound is only 2 m high. There are nearby water-sources. There are also some flint resources and limestone formations that provide raw materials for the Neolithic Period settlement.
Research and Excavation: The site is expected to be flooded by the lakes of the Birecik and Kargamis dams where construction began in 1989; after the completion of the Keban; Karakaya and AtatŘrk dams. It was discovered by G. Algaze; R. Breuninger and J. Knudstad during a survey led by G. Algaze. After the surface collection conducted by the University of Istanbul; Faculty of Letters; Prehistory Section and coordinated by METU TAăDAM in 1998; the excavations were started in 1999 under the direction of Sanliurfa Museum with an international team that consists of students and professors from the University of Istanbul; University of Barcelona Autonom/Spain and Tsukuba and Kaseigakuin Universities/Japan. The excavations are still being carried out. The second phase of the Akaršay Tepe excavations restarted after two years interval in 2003; and 2004; following the support by the Rectorate of University of Istanbul; and the Ministry Of Cultural and Tourism Affairs' DÍSIMM department in 2005. In 2007 excavations were suspended until the work started again in 2015. It takes place in the registered archaeological sites list prepared by Ministry of Culture and Tourism.
Stratigraphy: During the excavations started in 1999 in Akaršay Tepe a total of six occupational phases were encountered; of which the first three dating to the Aceramic Neolithic and the others to the Ceramic Neolithic. According to this the stratigraphy beginning from the upper layers is as follows: Akaršay Tepe I and II: Pre-Halaf Ceramic Neolithic; Akaršay Tepe III: The transitional phase from Aceramic Neolithic to Ceramic Neolithic; Akaršay Tepe IV: Last/Final Aceramic Neolithic B (Final PPNB); Akaršay Tepe V: Late PPNB; Akaršay Tepe VI: Middle PPNB. (For the 14C dates see Interpretation and Dating) In 1999; on the north of the stepped trench; which was opened from the top of the hill as far as the village road to the Akaršay Village; virgin soil was reached undar the road. The small amount of the Halaf; Obaid and Last Chalcolithic (Uruk) ceramics which were found during the surface collection; were only seen in pits during the excavations and they were not stratified. The excavations performed at the "Eastern Section" of the mound in 2006 confirmed again as in the past excavations that this section was inhabited during Aceramic Neolithic Period Phase I, and the settlement center switched towards the west during Pottery Neolithic Period Phase B to form a new settlement cone. The excavated sections at "East Section1" form the northwest skirts of the Aceramic Neolithic settlement. In this case the center of the settlement is believed to be exactly at the center of the Akaršay Village. A building was coincided during the opening of the small trench north of the school garden by the wall west of Akaršay Village, right below surface soil and its architectural characteristics, such as the raw material and building technique suggest the findings possibly belong to building level 6 or later based on Akaršay Hill East Section stratification [Ízbasaran-Molist 2008:160].
Small Finds: Architecture: The earliest settlement revealed during the 2002 season excavations in Akaršaytepe belongs to the B phase of the Aceramic Neolithic (Middle PPNB; Akaršay Tepe VI). As far as it has been excavated; the Middle PPNB with three phases (from the earliest to the latest) is represented by grill planned and four-cornered planned structures. The earliest level (trench 27 Y) is represented by four parallel stone walls and a mud-brick platform just next to it; and to the south by a stone foundation; which probably belongs to a square planned building. In the following level; a four-cornered planned building with mud-brick walls of which the first row of the wall over the stone foundation was preserved and an open area used as an atelier was determined. And on the top level; there are four parallel mudbrick walls; which were built without a stone foundation. To the south of this grill-planned building; a four-cornered building with one room has been preserved in the level of the stone foundation. Inside this structure; the plastered fragments encountered on the floor level indicate the presence of a plastered floor. The Aceramic Neolithic architecture that continues with Late PPNB (Akaršay Tepe V) after the Middle PPNB is revealed with all of its details especially on the eastern section of the mound (trenches 26-28 S-V) with the walls that have been preserved up to 1.60 m in height in some places. As far as it has been excavated; the architecture; represented by at least 10 occupational phases in the Aceramic Neolithic; varies in both plans and raw materials used during the Late PPNB. Although all of the buildings are four-cornered planned; they have differences such as single or multi roomed buildings; buildings with mud-brick walls with stone foundations and buildings with only stone walls. The earliest examples of the grill planned buildings are seen in this layer; Akaršay Tepe V. An external door was found on the short western wall of a single-roomed stone building (Building C) which lies in the east-west direction and has two occupational phases. And immediately east of it; on the soil floor of another multi-roomed mudbrick building (Building G); straw marks were encountered. The cell-planned buildings represented by two structures (Buildings S and Y) were found partially destructed because of the constructions in the upper layers. There are open areas between the buildings; which do not have common walls and were built separately. In some of these areas that were used as ateliers; fireplaces; ash pits; partition walls and platforms were found. The best and almost completely preserved example of the architectural remains belonging to the Final PPNB or the Akaršaytepe IV phase is a cell-planned building (Building K). The building lies in the direction of northeast-southwest; has large stone walls and was found in the foundation level. The building consists of nine rooms and the rooms located in the middle axis are a little larger than the ones on the eastern and western sides. An open area was left to the west and southwest of the building and single roomed structures with stone walls (which were thought to be belonging to the same layer) were built more to the west. The architecture of the transitional phase from the Aceramic Neolithic to the Ceramic Neolithic Akaršay Tepe III) is represented by buildings with stone foundations which resemble the buildings of the Ceramic Neolithic and also the buildings with light constructions that are indicated by the pillar holes; mudbrick plaster fragments and platforms consisting of scattered stone groups. Although the building plans are not completely known yet; ateliers that reflect the daily activities in the open areas were encountered. The little number of ceramics found in these areas which include architectural elements like furnaces; furnace floors; pits; stone floors and pillar holes; are the earliest ceramics of the region (see Ceramics). Akaršay Tepe II is the Pre-Halaf Ceramic Neolithic Period settlement; three layers were encountered during the ongoing excavations. Even though the architecture of the uppermost layer is destructed by the surface soil; a multi-roomed building with stone foundation and mudbrick walls (Building F; trench 19 G) in the second layer provides enough information to reflect architectural characteristics. The fifth large room to the west of the building represented by two small and two larger rooms with common walls; is an atelier. Numerous finds made of various raw materials like limestone and terra cotta were found on the compacted earth floor. The small rooms do not have floors and are probably used for storage and the larger ones with the compacted earth floors must be the residential areas. This building complex extends through east and west; below the unexcavated area; and as a result of this its whole plan has not been uncovered yet. The south of the building ends with a narrow and long open area which looks like an alley and a mudbrick wall with stone foundation that borders this open area. The architectural remains of Akaršay Tepe I are intensely destructed due to being directly under the surface soil. Although it has yielded very rich ceramic finds (especially trench 19K) there were no buildings with plans except for one small four-cornered building with a large/middle pebbled foundation (trench 20 M). The main objective of the excavations that took place in 2005 is the documentation of the agricultural; and animal domestication period; in the Mid-Phase of Aceramic Neolitic B Period which is the oldest settlement in the mound; as well as the determination of the lifestyle during the transition from the Aceramic Period to the Ceramic Period [Ízbasaran et al. 2007:188]. Aceramic Neolithic: The oldest phase of this period was known based on the layers of Middle PPNB. The researches continued inside the grill planned mud building (M building) found during the previous researches; and the other square planned building (L building). An architectural element with a lime floor; surrounded by limestones was found at the bottom of the L building [Ízbasaran et al. 2007:188-189]. An extremely well preserved mud building was found with walls higher than 1.0 m which has a similar plan to the buildings where researches were performed; which are represented by the three buildings with cell plans which is very common in the Upper Euphrates Area in the Last PPNB. The building named the "T building" was built of mud blocks on a foundation of flat limestones; all the walls were plastered with a thin layer of white clay plaster; and it was renovated up to three times at some locations as far as it could be determined; the floor plasters are not as elaborate as the wall plasters. The building plan consists of small rooms lined around the large room in the middle. The west section of the building of which a total of 11 rooms were unearthed; was destructed by the surface activities. Although possessing a symmetrical plan the size; and line-up of the rooms on both sides are not identical [Ízbasaran et al. 2007:189]. The foundation of the building with two well preserved rooms; named the BA building; which represents the last phase of the Aceramic Neolithic; and first phase of the Ceramic Neolithic in the eastern area consists of one row of stones in the west; and three rows of stones in the east based on the inclination of the ground. It is found that a relatively stiff filling formed the exterior land of the west of the building; and that the rubbish filling with ashes at the end of this is the refuse pit of the building [Ízbasaran et al. 2007:190]. The east and south sections of the building called the BB building located in the third layer of the trench 29 T was destructed due to the very apparent inclination and erosion from the west direction to the east direction. It may be stated that this building is a square planned building consisting of two cells; 6-7 m long in East-West direction; and 3-4 m in North-South direction [Ízbasaran et al. 2007:191]. Pottery Neolithic: There is a delimiting wall made of small and mid-size limestones in east northeast- west southwest direction inside the trench 19 F towards the center; in the West Area. The mud remains; were revealed north of this wall in a very bad status; and a kiln area; a small ash pit; two pole spots inside exterior filling and hard; compact soil fillings were found suggesting the presence of a utilisation platform in the south [Ízbasaran et al. 2007:193]. Pottery: The most evident characteristic of the Akaršay Tepe III phase ceramics is; although they are the earliest ceramics; they are very qualified and neatly made. The clay is heavy grit tempered. Their surface treatments are finely made. Both surfaces of some sherds have a significant brightness as a result of fine burnishing. There is not a great variation in vessel shapes. The main shape consists of the slightly inrolled rimmed jars. On some sherds; there are horizontally placed flat lugs or pierced lugs in horizontal direction. Decorated sherds were not encountered among the little number of third phase ceramics. There is an important increase in the number of the ceramics during phase II. Big differences appear both in reduction techniques and vessel shapes. The surface of the heavy straw tempered wares looks rough because they were generally contented with only wiping. The rate of this ceramic group which can be named; as Coarse Ware is more than 90%. The most significant difference in the vessel shapes is their variation. Besides the shallow bowls and semi spherical bowls; large neckless pots and vertical edged deep pots were also encountered. Among the large pots; there are flat lugs placed under the rim; pierced lugs with the holes in horizontal direction and vertical pierced lugs. The only adorned example is decorated with relief technique. During the same phase; besides thee coarse ware; a little number of a different ceramic type was encountered. Among these ceramics; heavy grit tempered and slightly burnished wares have the characteristics of the phase III. Except for these; the washed impressed wares; which were found in a little number; are similar to Amuq A ceramics and were probably imported to Akaršaytepe. The ceramics of phase I become clearer with the appearance of the fine straw tempered qualified ware; in addition to the heavy straw tempered coarse ware. They can be divided into two sub-phases. The heavy straw tempered coarse wares of the previous phase are mainly similar to the coarse ware of phase II; but they are more loose textured. Husking trays are seen in this phase. The interior surfaces of these shallow and flat vessels are crescented or notched. This thin pasted; fine straw and grit tempered; hardly fired and neatly made qualified group can be classified as dark red wares; colored washed wares; red burnished wares and plain wares. The shapes consist of shallow bowls; semi spherical bowls; oval examples; and sharp profiled necked bowls. In the next sub-phase of the phase I; red burnished fine wares are still abundant. The straw tempered coarse wares become less in number and husking trays are still seen. Among the qualified group; inserted decorated sherds are in majority. Also; a few reliefed and painted decorated pieces were encountered. It is found that the primary researches on the sherds revealed in the BA building refuse pit and inside the building during the excavations in 2005 showed that these finds show the characteristics of black series; therefore the architectural elements of the BA building; and the other architectural elements found outside the building may be dating to the transition phase from the Aceramic Neolithic to the Ceramic Neolithic Period [Ízbasaran et al. 2007:190]. The primary observations on the bowls found in the 2nd layer of the trench 29 S just south of the U building unearthed in previous years showed that the material is homogenous; and it is identified as the oldest available pottery samples known as the black series [Ízbasaran et al. 2007:192]. The most impressive items in the center of the trench 19 F in the Western Area are the pottery [Ízbasaran et al. 2007:193]. Clay: The majority of the clay objects are from the Aceramic Neolithic Period settlement. The most abundant group consists of animal figurine fount complete or almost complete. In the Ceramic Neolithic layers; spindle whorls and cylindrical or mushroom shaped clay objects were found. In both settlements clay human figurines or figurine pieces are very scarce. Chipped Stone: The chipped stone industry of Akaršay Tepe is mostly represented by flint; obsidian is seen as imported material. Flint was provided from the sources located on foots of the mountain in the environment; also in the terraces of the Euphrates; flint nodules dragged through the river bed were encountered. It is known that the flaking process of this raw material; which was brought to the settlement as blocks; was made in the settlement. Other than the local flint; the closest source of another qualified chocolate colored; homogenous textured and chalk cortexed flint is 25 km far. This flint was only used for the making of some tools and especially spearheads. The flaking techniques and purposes show differences during the phases of the settlement. In phase VI; blade production is intense. The purpose of flaking with two striking platforms is to provide smooth primal pieces for various tools (burin; scarper; sickle blade). Because the blades made of the center of the flaking surface are naturally pointed; they were especially used for Byblos type arrowheads. Flake production is very limited in this phase. In phase V; blade production is still intense. The flaking technique with two striking platforms is used less than the previous phase. In addition to the Byblos arrowheads; first pressure arrowheads; crested cores with one striking platforms were also encountered. Consequently; it can be suggested that; in blade production; besides the direct percussion technique; pressure flaking was also used. Flake production is still limited. In phase IV; flake production is dominant; for the first time the number of flake cores is more than the number of blade cores. In blade production; the intensity of blades with two striking platforms become less than the ones with one striking platforms. One striking platform is also preferred for the flake cores. With the transitional phase III; blade production becomes more marginal than flake production. Blades with one striking platforms are in majority. In phase II and I of the Ceramic Neolithic; flakes produced from one or two striking platformed cores are in majority. The blades are short and discarded other than a few exceptions. Retouched tools show differences in number and quantity during the phases of the settlement. Points and arrowheads are the most abundant tools in phase VI; but with the beginning of phase V their intensity changes. While the arrowheads are represented by the Byblos type in phase VI; pressure retouched arrowheads appear in phase V and their usage continues in all phases. The pressure retouch covers only a part of the points; but in the last phases of the settlement it starts covering the whole point. While the scrapers; especially the end scrapers; are very common in the first phases (especially phase V); they become fewer beginning from phase III. This is possibly the expression of the changing activities. Sickle blades are encountered more abundantly in the first phases. In phase VI; the silica brightness is only seen on the blade edges; beginning from phase VI; this brightness covers a part of the blade; which is diagonal to the edge. This can be considered as evidence showing that the blades were put on the handle diagonally. Obsidian was imported to Akaršaytepe. While the macroscopic studies of obsidian with different colors point out the Eastern Anatolia obsidian resources; a very transparent brown-gray group resembles the Central Anatolia resources. Obsidian is encountered in all phases of the settlement. However; the abundance in phases VI and V shows a continuous decrease. This probably indicates the change in the status of obsidian; which possibly was an exchange material; during habitation. The majority of obsidian consists of fine blades and bladelets. Pieces that belong to flaking activities are very rare. While most of the obsidian show thin edge usage marks; pressure retouched spearhead pieces; scarper and a few sickle blades constitute the obsidian tools; these are all found in very little numbers. The 2005 excavations revealed some silex on the basin of building L [Ízbasaran et al. 2007:189]. More than 1200 fragments were unearthed in the obsidian workshop area located below the 9th layer; and above the 10th layer [Ízbasaran et al. 2007:189]. The most impressive items besides the pottery in the center of the trench 19F in the Western Area area are the silex and obsidians. Those finds consist of stone vessels; perforated stones; stones bearing use wear; hammer axe; knapped stones in disc shape; incision decorated stones; stone spheres; and animal figurines; along with a bead; and a shell punctured to be used as beads [Ízbasaran et al. 2007:193]. The black series group which are the oldest known pottery in Akarcay Tepe bear the characteristics such as the utilisation of excellently prepared clay and calcite as additive material; and elaborately burnished surface. There are a very limited number of styles; usually vertical bowls; smoothed mouths; and convex bottoms are among the known shapes. The fragments that were found are in general below 10 cm2; consisting of small vessel bodies. Some bear handles; generally round shaped; but also some flat handles; and some perforated and unperforated handles. This kind of pottery; generally bearing such characteristics are the oldest available pottery found in the Eastern Area. Thereafter it differentiates in terms of technology: Differences are seen with time in the material used as additive and its density; it is observed that sand; mica and volcanic grit was used as additive besides thin calcite granules. The pottery unearthed during the excavations in the Western Area is richer in terms of diversity and in number; there are over 2000 items found. The uppermost layers of the trenchs 20 G-F revealed pottery dating to the latest phase in Akaršay Tepe. The general characteristics of those vessels are very coarse; plant-tempered; orange colored or creme; generally badly baked; light; simply burnished; mid and large size vessels. There are also a few elaborately processed items: The tempers are undefined; the cores are oxidized; surfaces are painted either red or dark brown. This group may be possibly be dated to Post-Halaf phase along with the other group which possessed a greenish core due to the excessive heat. There were other pottery groups found inside the herementioned trenchs which may be dating to Late Neolithic. The main group among those is the group having a very coarse; plant tempered; simply burnished surface ware; small or mid size vessels with mineral or plant temper; fine burnished or painted group. There are "husking tray" samples seen; related with the same group with dense plant tempering; items with incision decoration; insertion decoration and vessels with grit temper; and burnished surface. The pottery found in 19 F offer more developed samples of pottery manufacturing in terms of technology. These are technologically less mineral tempered; on the other hand there is increased plant tempering. The black core decreased and elaborate burnishing; and polishing started on the surface processing. On the other hand the mineral temper vessel manufacturing continued; but the thin calcite particle tempered vessels decreased. At the same time another group evolved made of well prepared clay; with a slightly amount or a thin layer of mineral tempering. There are also Dark Faced Burnished Ware samples among this group. A small straight-angle bowl sample has a round mouth; with red paint or coating inside the bowl; and around the mouth; and a decoration consisting of a number of parallel lines [Ízbasaran et al. 2007:198-199]. Ground Stone: Stone bowls; flat axes; beads were found in two of the settlement phases but the abundance is in Aceramic Neolithic. Besides the bowls neatly made of various hard stones; limestone bowls that appear to be formed in a hurry when necessary are also avaliable. Hammer stones and grinding stones were seen in small numbers in both settlements. There are many ground and grinding stones found in the L building basin; during the excavations that took place in 2005 [Ízbasaran et al. 2007:189]. Bone/Antler: The majority of bone finds in both phases of the settlement consist of awls. In the Ceramic phase spatulas and burnishing tools; in the Aceramic phase needles; beads; belt buckles were encountered in little numbers. Human Remains: Scattered human remains; belonging to one inhabitant in Ceramic and three in Aceramic Phase were encountered but they were not in situ. It is observed that a human skeleton was placed in hocker position without any grave gifts underneath the mud bricks where it gives the impression that the mud blocks were thrown inside a pit in the trench 20 G-F; which was excavated in 2005 [Ízbasaran et al. 2007:194-195]. Fauna: The first evaluations of the ongoing animal bone analysis in Akaršaytepe are as follows: The biometrical variety observed in sheep and goat groups shows that; from phase IV to I the majority is domestic and from phase V to I they slowly become smaller. The biometrical data gained for the pigs is static during the whole settlement series with a slight increase in the later phases (from phase III to I). This static situation shows the possibility of the presence of domestic species in Akaršaytepe V. The same possibility is also observed in oxes. It can be said that the ox population in Akaršaytepe indicates the possible presence of domestic ox beginning from phase V. According to these first observations; from phase V on; stock raising can be talked about in Akaršay Tepe. Besides; hunting is also common. From the earliest to the latest; there is a clear decrease in the diversity of the animals that were hunted. In phase V; the hunting related to various animal species (horse; deer; dorcas gazelle; wild boar; rabbits; lion and foxes); focuses on dorcas gazelle hunting beginning from phase IV. The excavations that took place in the basin of the L building in 2005 revealed a few animal bones [Ízbasaran et al. 2007:189]. The primary observations performed on the animal bones set forth that there were species such as donkeys (Equus asinus/Equus hemionus); roe deers (Gazella gazella.Sp./Gazzella subguturosa) and hares (Leporolus sp.) inside the trench 27 X of the oldest settlement phase. Although there were some wild and domestic species of goats and porks in the previous years the researches in 2005 revealed some wild species [Ízbasaran et al. 2007.196]. Flora: The archaeobotany samples belonging to the Aceramic Neolithic settlement are diverse: four different types of grain were cultivated; two of these consist of wild or morphologically uncultivated grains. The identified types are einkorn (Triticum monococcum) wheat; emmer (Triticum dicoccum) wheat; unglumiferous wheat (Triticum aestivum/durum) and cultivated two row barley (Hordeum distichum). Morphologically; the presence of wild grain is also known: wild wheat (cf. Triticum boeoticum) and wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum). The examples of Gramineae family and only one type of broad bean; (Vicia ervilia) takes place among the other finds. Besides these; four different wild grass seed types; Lolium sp.; Bromus sp.; Galium sp. and Lithospermum sp.; were also encountered. Although the studied samples are very little in number; wild einkorn is also included to the previous types in the Ceramic Neolithic settlement (Akaršay Tepe I-III). The presence of cultivated barley is known with the six row barley (Hordeum vulgare) and two row barley/wild barley seeds and crop stems. Pea family is represented by cultivated pea (Pisum sativum) and chickpea (Lathyrus cicera/sativus). Another identified type in this phase is linen (Linum); even though it was not very commonly seen until today; as far as known from the other settlements; it was a commonly gathered and even cultivated plant. Together with the cultivated plants; some wild plant seeds were also encountered; these are comprised of grassy plants that grow in the fields such as Bromus sp.; Lolium sp.; Astragalus sp.; Arnebia sp.; Lithospermum sp. and Plantago sp. Among the charred wood remains; the best represented ones are of the types that grow in the wooded areas by the water. This vegetation; which is today only found in areas near by the water; is represented by ash tree (Fraxinus); willow (Salix); elm (Ulmus); poplar (Populus) and tamarisk (Tamarix). The fact that these types were encountered in all settlement phases studied indicates that the inhabitants of Akaršay Tepe continuously mode use of these vegetation types. But because the studied samples are very limited in number; the results may not be statistically characteristic. The oaks; represented by typical steppe trees like almond (Amygdalus) and pistachio (Pistacia); and oak (Quercus) and fig (Ficus carica) trees are the other types that complete the vegetation. The 2005 excavations went on in order to find out about the consumption; and the prehistoric agricultural practices. The weeds consist mainly of the plants inside the field [Ízbasaran et al. 2007:195-196].
Interpretation and Dating: The preliminary results from the ongoing excavations have shown that the first habitation in Akaršaytepe started in the middle of PPNB and continued until the end of seventh millenium BC without any interruption. The 14C dates are as follows: Phase I Beta 13858 7280 ▒ 50 Phase II Beta 138582 7470 ▒ 80 Phase III Beta 138586 7970 ▒ 120 Phase IV Beta 138583 8390 ▒ 110 Phase V Beta 138584 8750 ▒ 40 Phase VI It was determined that the inhabitants of Akaršay Tepe Aceramic Neolithic settlement practiced cultivation; and on the other hand continued gathering wild plants and domesticated sheep; goat; ox and pig. It is also known that they practiced hunting which continued decreasingly through the later phases. While there is a certain increase in the diversity of both cultivated and wild types; a decrease is seen in the diversity of daily activities; flint gradually loses its significance in chipped stone industry; raw materials like bone and obsidian and grinding stone tools like chisel and flat axe start taking its place. It was observed that in Ceramic Phase; flake industry takes the place of the neatly produced blades of Aceramic Phase. In architectural activities; the diverse plans and neatly built structures of the Aceramic Phase begin to look more like a village settlement formed due to the daily needs. Akaršay Tepe culture; which is one of the seventh millenium communities on the Euphrates bank; has a great importance considering the fact that the settlement will determine its place in the formation of the Southeastern Anatolia cultures and clarify the transition from the Aceramic Neolithic to Ceramic Neolithic. The pre-analysis inside the workshop underneath the 9th and on the 10th layers during the 2005 excavations showed that this is a workshop located in an open space due to the technological fragments found consisting of obsidians flaking; and the waste deriving from the flaking that was left inside an area of 1.0 m in diameter [Ízbasaran et al. 2007:189]. The black line pottery found in BA building and the architectural elements found in the BA building and environs may be dated to the transition phase from the Aceramic Neolithic to Ceramic Neolithic. Thus; this new outcome was verified in terms of architecture and cultur based on the lack of stratigraphical intervals between the two periods in Akaršay Tepe which is interpreted as "uninterrupted settlement continuity" [Ízbasaran et al. 2007:190-191].

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