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Eastern Anatolia
Investigation Method:
Early Late


Location: The site used to lie approximately 750 m east of Asvan Village of Elazig; near a small valley before the construction of Keban Dam. It is completely vanished in the present day. The location code of the site is N 52 / 9.
Geography and Environment: Small and low mound; also called Köyüstü [Whallon Ğ Kantman 1970:4]; is located near a wooded valley. It was damaged by erosion; irrigation channels; and a stream at the east. Although the dimensions of the mound are 100x80x3 m [French et al. 1972:45 - 46]; this cannot be the exact measurement because of the damage [French et al. 1974:30].
Research and Excavation: The site was discovered during the surveys conducted by R. Whallon and S. Kantman for the sites that were going to be inundated by Keban Dam. Excavations were conducted by D. French for the Asvan Project in 1970 and 1971.
Stratigraphy: Two major settlement phases were observed: The Phase II dates to the Late Chalcolithic Age; 4th Millennium BC [Diamant Ğ Aksoy 1974:32]. The Phase I is below Phase II; and is dated by the painted pottery; similar to Halafian. Charred grain mass seperates the two phases. Virgin soil was reached in the 1970-71 trenches on the northern and eastern slopes of the mound; and the deposit was observed to be approximately 6 m [AksoyĞDiamant 1973:97; French et al. 1974:31]. Phases I and II are reported vice versa in the two publications.
Small Finds: Architecture: Phase I is above the virgin soil; and divided into two sub-phases. A 0.40 m wide stone wall; five stone courses in height; was revealed in the lowest level (Ia) of Phase I [Aksoy Ğ Diamant 1973:100]. A large cornerstone was put at a corner where the wall makes a vertical angle. Another wall; consisting of five courses and measuring 0.50 m in width; and a floor; paved with sherds; were revealed in one upper level (Ib) of Phase I. A small piece shows that the wall was plastered. A hearth; at the lowest level (IIa) of Phase II; a floor; in the upper level (IIb); and the remains of a small mud-brick wall segment; three bricks high; were also revealed [AksoyĞDiamant 1973:100; French et al. 1974:31]. Pottery: Phase I pottery is studied in three main groups: Gray or black ware; pinkish red slipped vessels; and buff and brown ware. Grit and chaff temper are rare; but burnishing is observed in all ware groups. Forms are simple; bell or pear-shaped and shallow; small bowls; and jars with necks. Although plain ware is dominant; sherds of relief and paint-decorated ware are also existent. The majority of Phase II pottery is the sherds of chaff-ware. Buff and brown; white / gray / black ware; and pinkish red vessels make up the three main groups; while bowls and jars; with different rim types; make up the main forms. An increase is observed in the number of sherds of painted ware compared to Phase I: Red and brown bands and diagonal hatched decorated sherds resemble the Halafian and Ubaid decorated vessels [AksoyĞDiamant 1973:100Ğ106; French et al. 1974:31]. Clay: A deer figurine; whose upper body and upper extremeties could be preserved; is one of the rare clay finds [French et al. 1974:32]. Chipped Stone: Tools made of flintstone and obsidian were recovered; but the main raw material is obsidian. There are evident differences between the two phases; the parallel-edged blades of Phase II are not existent at Phase I. Besides the few simple tips; a small; bifaced trapezoid tool with one cutting edge was recovered from Phase I. Simple; retouched; and notched parallel edged blades and tips were recovered from Phase II [AksoyĞDiamant 1973:107; French et al. 1972:48; 1974:32]. Ground Stone: Grinding stones and beads were found at both phases [French et al. 1972:48]. Bone / Antler: Many beads made of bone; measuring 3 mm in diameter; were recovered [AksoyĞDiamant 1973:107]. Flora: Charred grains; and abundant carbonized plant remains were found during the trial excavation; in 1970 [French et al. 1972:48]. The "grain deposit" beneath Phase I is rich for its flora [French et al. 1974:32].
Interpretation and Dating: The forms and the decoration elements of Phases I and II pottery of Çayboyu resemble Fatmali Kalecik and Kurupinar in the neighbouring area; and Tülintepe; Tepecik; and Norsuntepe; in Keban Region. The new phase of Çayboyu dates to the 4th Millennium BC; probably the last half; while the old phase dates to the beginning of the 4th Millennium BC; and probably a small period of the 5th Millennium BC. The site must be interrelated with Halafian and Ubaid cultures; but this is not yet clear [AksoyĞDiamant 1973:107] [French et al. 1974:32].

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