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Araçlar / Resuloglu

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Araçlar / Resuloğlu
Mound and Cemetery
Central Anatolia
Investigation Method:


Location: It lies on the eastern bank of Deliçe Stream; 900 m northwest of Resuloğlu (Kaleboynu) Village; west of Ugurludag District; west-southwest of Çorum Province.
Geography and Environment: It is also known as Araçlar or Keseli Pinar Mevkii. It measures 70x50 m in dimensions. A cemetery was discovered 100 m south on the opposite side. It has been severely disturbed by illicit diggings.
Research and Excavation: It was discovered in 1989 by T. Sipahi and T. Yildirim and excavations were started in 2003. In total; 157 burials have been found; although they had been damaged by illegal digging [Yildirim-Ediz 2008:443]. Amount of graves rised from 201 in 2007 to 249 after 2008 excavations [Yildirim-Ipek 2010:28].
Small Finds: Architecture: Large amounts of sherds of pithos and stones recovered here expose the presence of pithos and cist graves belonging to an extramural cemetery. Most of the graves are stone cist graves made of flat andesite or limestone and the others are jar burials. Infants and children were buried in jars or small pithos and the adults in large pithos. Jars are usually closed by flat stones and filled around by limestones. Some burials had pots between these stones as grave goods. And some jar burials were closed by pots; there were also exceptional ones that were closed by clay. No earth graves have been found yet. The small finds and architectural remains found in 2004 season excavations over the graves north of Trench B showed that some part of the cemetery was used for settlement at the later phases of EBA due to the need of more space for the houses. 10 cist grave were uncovered in 2004. The length of the graves varies 70-160 cm and they are about 60 cm deep. The objective of the research that took place in 2005; was to unearth the connection between the architectural remains on the north of the trench and the cemetery area; and to research the areas in the north; southeast and southwest of the trench B; where 87 cist; and pithos graves were found in 2004. One or two rows of the irregular clacker stone foundations and the pavements of some rooms were found inside the stone architectural remains that were only partially preserved inside the northeast trench [Yildirim-Ediz 2007:212]. Architectural remains belonging to another building consisting of rectangular plan rooms above the older phase were found northeast of the B trench. The architectural remains; and small finds in this area just above the cemetery level; show that the need to residences increased in parallel with the population increase; and that a part of the cemetery land was under the EBA late phase buildings. The locations of the pithos graves were identified by the surrounding stones inside the northwest trench. Those new pithos graves show that the cemetery spreaded to a much larger area than predicted [Yildirim-Ediz 2007:213]. In 2006, excavations in the EB III cemetery continued and 150 tombs have now been investigated. Three types of tomb are found: pithos burials closed with stone packing or a jar, smaller pots (50 cm high) for small children and infants, and cists lined and covered with thin stone slabs. The jars usually have the same orientation, and signs of reopening and reuse have been observed. Most tombs have been emptied but some still contain burials and gifts. All the skeletons are flexed, even those found lying on the back, and most have the face turned to the south [http://cat.une.edu.au/page/resuloglu; 24.11.2009, 12:13]. Eight sarcophagus-type, pithos-type and earth grave-type burials were found on the east slope in 2008 [Yildirim-Ipek 2010:22]. Based on the ceramic yielded on the preserved floor immediately next to the stone foundations revealed at trench B in 2007, the remains represent the second half of the EBA. It was found that this area was used as a cemetery after the houses were abandoned [Yildirim-Ipek 2010:24]. Most of the graves unearthed in the west-northwest and southwest of trench B were the pithoi burials placed in northeast-southwest or east-west directions. A total of 30 graves were identified at this area. The openings of some of the pithoi were closed using flat flagstones and others were closed with jars in various forms and those were supported with stones. In some graves soil was thrown over pithoi during burial then the burial spot was marked roughly by 1-1,5 m circles made with stones [Yildirim-Ipek 2010:25]. Simple rimmed, pear-shaped bodied pithos with horizontal handles on the shoulders that was unearthed was a rare specimen from Resuloglu. Southwest of trench B was the section where graves were often encountered. There were two sarcophagi between the pithoi at this area. One of those graves had a stone paved floor [Yildirim-Ipek 2010:26]. 6 graves in total are excavated in Squares F27 and 30 in 2009. Out of the six, 2 are cist and 4 are jar graves. The cist grave which is located in East-West axis of Square F27 is 170 by 74 cm and it is the largest sample excavated in Resuloglu to date. The studies attempting to identify the South extension of the main cemetery are carried out in three separate squares (A 31, AA31, and AB 31) in the South section of Trench B that is looking Delice Valley. Seven graves in total that belong to adults and children are excavated out of which one is cist grave and the others are far and pot graves. 2009 excavations showed that the Early Bronze Age architecture remains are more intense in the North and Northwest side of actual cemetery. Thus it became evident that a third settlement (consisting of two architectural levels for now) existed in Resuloglu in the North and Northwest of the actual cemetery alongside the two mound settlements which were very close. The foundations that belong to the upper level, i.e. Level 1 of the two separate architectural levels that is located in Northwest are destructed heavily. The stones that cover up the graves and support their lids are compatible in terms of type and character with the foundation stones of Level 1. The walls of Level 1 that is in the North of the trench are right under the ground level (50 cm). Most of the foundations are made of two rows of stones placed in regular manner and they belong to the rooms of rectangular planned, multiple-room houses. It is observed that the buildings of Level 1 are larger and more spacious that those on lower levels. According to the walls that are preserved some of the houses have rooms that are 3.5 to 6 m wide. Two round planned oven are either placed in corners of rooms or next to the longer walls. Another type of plan worth noting from the architecture of Level 1 is the round plan. Two or three room buildings that are constructed in an adjacent manner are unearthed in Level 1 of the Northeast corner of the trench. It is observed that the buildings were mostly vacated. The foundations of the architectural Level 3 that are excavated this year in the Northwest of Trench B and that are 140 cm below the ground level are thinner than those in Level 1. The foundations are 40 cm thick on average. The adobe remains are partially preserved on some foundations. One of the most well preserved houses from Level 2 is in the North of the trench. The base on the East and the North of the square planned building is stone paved. A room of the building which is close to the South wall is square planned. A wooden pole pit for supporting the roof is in the stone pavement right before the door opening facing North. Square-like planned room of the neighbor house that is in the South of the stone paved building and the adobe platform of the other room are preserved. A furnace exists on the North expansion of the platform which remained under the wall of Level 1. A cist grave unearthed below the ground level of the square planned room is witnessing the intramural burial tradition of Level 2. A building with a long (8.80 m) rectangular room constructed in North-South axis is located on Level 2 below the foundations of Level 1 in the Northeast of Trench B. The building has an oval furnace [Yildirim-Ipek 2011: 349-352]. Storage wells for crops have been discovered in Level 2 dated to EBA. The storage well numbered 1 is in circular plan and 160 cm in diameter. The cover stone of a grave which extends in the east-west direction and measures 70x120 cm has been encountered 30 cm south of this well. The grave consists of 4 stone slabs. In Level 2, the intramural cist grave belonging to a juvenile was found at a depth of 140 cm. The storage well numbered 2 is in circular shape and the preserved upper section surrounded by mudbrick walls and the inner section consists of mostly andesite slabs. The square planned mudbrick structure exposed in the plan squares of AF 26 and AF 25 is named Room D. It was found out that the thin andesite slabs were the circles built for storing crops. The floor of an oven with a dimension of 180x115 cm was unearthed on the northeast of Room D. The other units which could be related to Room D are the small rooms called B and C which lie successively. Located to the north of Trench B, the room belonging to Level 1 was built in the north-south direction and its interior dimensions are 390x680 cm. The walls surrounding the room were erected with two courses of limestone and a few andesite slabs with loam mortar. The architectural remains with two phases belonging to EBA were exposed in the plan squares of AF/24-AE/25-AE/24-AD/25. The room called A belonging to Phase I extends in the north-south direction and measures 4.20x4.30 m. Under the Room A of Level 1, the large structure belonging to Level 2 was unearthed. This structure consists of a single course of masonry and measures 6.60x3.00 m in dimension and approx. 50 cm in width. In Area B, 11 graves, which include 1 cist grave and 10 jar burials, were exposed. The structure with 4 room (rooms called A, B, C, D) dated to EBA was unearthed on the south and north of the eastern city wall belonging to IA in the southeast settlement. 6 circular shaped storage wells located on the N-S axis were found in the plan squares of ZR/36-ZP/36. During the northwest settlement excavations that were conducted this year a large wall which consists of massive mudbrick blocks and extends in the southwest-northeast direction and the corner of the structure ("Room A") were unearthed. n 2013, the studies carried out in the mound located in the southeast of the cemetery. In the east of Room E (EBA Level II), the dig of which started in 2012, a section that was probably used in Level I (IA) and Level II (EBA) was exposed. This section was added later to the room. The studies were conducted in Room C, which belongs to the same building complex with Room K, L and J, in the plan square ZT/36. Some parts of the remnants in this area remained under the city wall of IA. Below the city wall, the east and west wall of Room C were unearthed. Only the uppermost stones of these walls are preserved. There is a door opening to Room K on the east wall of the room. The width of this door is about 80 cm. This room underwent a fire and finds dating to EBA were recovered from the room fill. The stone pillar, which was fallen from the upper storey, shows that the room in fact was two-storied. The coarse potsherds, hand axe, burnishers, blades, firedog, weights and spindle whorls recovered from the debris of the second floor indicate that it was used for daily activities. In the ground floor of Room C, an oven with dome was exposed at the northwest corner. The oven is in oval shape and there is a smoke shaft with a width of about 67 cm. A rounded hearth with a dimension of 118x156 cm was found at the northeast corner of the room. Located to the north of Room C, Room D measures about 440x105 cm. The stone walls of this room are plastered. Its floor is made out of compacted soil as in the other rooms. A great number of EBA sherds and grinding stones were recovered from its room fill. It is believed that this room was used for storage. In south of the rooms in the north of the settlement, 20 siloi dating to EBA were found. The number of siloi increased to 38. All of these siloi were dug into the virgin soil. They are rounded and have flat floors. Most of them contain wheat and barley [http://www.ttk.gov.tr/templates/resimler/File/Kazilar/2013/18-2013_Resuloglu.pdf, 2.7.2016, 17:26]. Pottery: Typical EBA sherds were recovered from the grave pits and from the surrounding territory. Handmade; brown; red and black washed sherds dating from the EBA were collected from the surface. Most of the grave goods are parallel with the ones uncovered at Alacahöyük; Kalinkaya; Oymaagaç and Balibagi cemeteries [Yildirim-Ediz 2005:193-196]. Burial jars are mostly moderately fired. There are are also quickly prepared underfired examples too. Red; brown; brownish and black coated jars sometimes have pellets and cylindrical knobs on shoulders which is characteristic for this period. Common forms among the grave goods are mugs; vases; plates; pots and bowls with single handle. Handmade pottery is red; brown and black coated and well burnished. Some pots have incised decorations on the shoulders and bodies as it is common in Central and North Anatolia pottery in 2nd millennium BC. Handmade open vessels and pots are parallel with the ones in Alacahöyük. An interesting find from 2004 season excavations is the handmade; double handled spouted pot which is put on the mouth of a jar burial. A handmade dish; a double-handled vessel; and a mug were found along with a silex tool on one of the room floors inside the northeast trench in 2005. Most of the graves unearthed during the excavations in the northwest section consist of pithos graves. Some of the pithos graves located 1.5 m below the surface are large size. Some have ornaments in the shape of cylindrical buttons on their shoulders. Most of the grave mouths face east. It is assumed that the large pithos graves which do not have any closure stones were either robbed; or searched through. The rows of stones near the pithos graves may be related to the preparation of a special burial; or identifying the location of the burial by surrounding it. It is observed that the cist burials keep decreasing in numbers from south to west direction inside the trench B. Most of the 30 pithos graves revealed during the researches that took place at Resuloglu in 2005; are not different from the ones found in the previous years in terms of shape and burial customs. It is observed that some of the pithos graves mouths were closed by stones; and some by gray or black coated jars with round bodies. A new kind of pithos grave was found for the first time in Resuloglu this year; which belongs to an upper level; having a better quality paste; light red coating; and vertical groove ornamentation. The number of burial gifts were increased during the researches in 2005. Various presents left inside and outside the burials were made of terra cotta; stone; bones; or minerals. Most of the terra cotta burial gifts consist of specially manufactured pottery. The black coated and elaborately burnished vessels which are imitations of metallic vessels contain grooves in parallel on their shoulders and their bodies. Following the samples in Alacahöyük and Masathöyük a rich collection of pottery was revealed in Resuloglu graves. Burnished spouted jugs in red and brown colored coatings; mugs and vases are pottery samples of daily use well known from the north settlements in Central Anatolia; but specially manufactured as burial gifts. The second group of these gifts consist of brown or black paste spindle whorls. The spindle whorls generally were left inside the women's graves. Additionally necklaces; fruits; tiles; insect shells; uzonite; agate; amethyst; and bronze beads were also left as personal ornamentation items. The items revealed inside the graves of the babies and the new born especially look colorful [Yildirim-Ediz 2007: 214-215]. Though the pithoi found in 2006 consisted mostly of coarse and less baked wares; there are also examples which were better baked and made of red or beige coated clay. Most of the pithoi shoulders contain button or cylinder embossed decorations which were placed against each other. There are very few examples of such pithoi with decorated shoulders in the region. The ones made for the babies and children have large bellies and they are red coated. These constitute the largest examples of the pithos type which is widely used in Çorum region [Yildirim-Ediz 2008:444]. Some of the pottery which were left as burial gift were found right next to the pithoi; near the rim of the pithos; and some were found inside the burials. In addition to the pithoi with S profile that were left next to the burials; the presence of smaller vessels in forms of small drinking cups was observed. Besides the S profile jugs the most beloved forms of vessels were apparently the small jugs with different colors of external and internal coatings; with handles on their shoulders. Some of the pottery left inside the pithoi contain black coatings; with decorations of dots and incisions. Besides the black coating the presence of red or brown coatings are observed. Black coated; glaze burnished jugs contain decoration techniques which are not any different than the examples observed at Masat Höyük and Horoztepe; which were dated to the end of EBA. Among the smaller burial vessels there are the vessels found at Alaca Höyük as well [Yildirim-Ediz 2008:446]. In 2008 very good quality ceramics consisting of 7 pieces, in two different coating color were yielded besides a pithos of which the opening was closed with a large mouth jar at trench B. That was the first time in that region where so many good quality pottery were left outside a grave as burial gift. The lids that were closed on black coated vases compose contrast with their red color coating. Traces of flax string inside one of the lidholes was preserved. Thus it was clarified that after pouring offering liquids or food inside the jars the lids were tied with flax strings to the holes inside the shoulders [Yildirim-Ipek 2010:26]. A pot that is covered with another pot is left right next to the stone pile covering the grave is found left in 2009 in Trench B. The pot has corresponding horizontal handles. Types and slips of main and generative jars are different than the others excavated here. Most of the handmade, straw tempered pottery pieces captured among the ruins of Level 1 are light brown or camel hair color pasted, slipped and burnished with light red or shades of brown cups, pots, mugs and other samples of pot-like form. Part of the potteries scattered around the oven on the ground in Trench B belong to brown pasted, and red or brown slipped fruit plates. A vase containing the skeletons of a baby is captured in the bottom of North wall of the room with oven. The vase is brown-gray slipped and tall-necked and it is represented for the first time in this level. When the Level 2 potteries are analyzed it is observed that the majority is handmade, straw tempered, black, camel hair, brown or red color, and sometimes black slipped and burnished on the inside, and red slipped and burnished on the outside. Ensize decoration is seen just below the rims of some mugs. The tradition of smoothened white paint applied inside of a plate which is black slipped is a new characteristic for Resuloglu. Small vases with buttons on the belly, cups and miniature vessels exist among pots captured intact. Pieces of a gray pasted, black slipped, globe bodied pot found among the remains of Level 2 is wheel-made and foreign [Yildirim-Ipek 2011: 349-352]. During the 2011 campaign, A body sherd of a vessel was found on the floor of the oven on the west of the room called Room A of Level 2. A fruit-stand, stamp seal and loom weight were recovered form the floor of the room. 1 bowl with a single handle, two jars were found in the Room A of the structure with 4 rooms exposed in the southeast settlement. Also, a baked clay loom weight in prism shape was recovered from the Room C. Metal: It is definite that the group of metal weapons originating from Resuloglu preserved in the Ankara Museum of Anatolian Civilizations has been uncovered here. The metal grave goods found during the excavations consist of copper; bronze; silver; gold and electrum. Almost in every grave there are bronze pins left on the chest of skeletons or around them. Some of the sphere and pear-shaped headed pins are bended on purpose. Some of the pinheads are grooved as the ones in Masathöyük; Ikiztepe and Oymaagac cemeteries. It is suggested that the pin with double knobbed head is special to Resuloglu for now. The number of the weapons left in male graves has been increased by 2004. Bronze axes are typical for the north of Central Anatolia. Besides these finds there are also metal daggers; bronze and lead bowls; necklaces; earrings; gold or bronze ear plugs; bronze hair rings; bracelets and anklets. The torques which first found in 2004 are similar with the ones in Oymaagaç and Troia and the hair ring found in a female grave can be compared with the ones in Ur kingdom graves. Most of the metallic gifts consist of bronze weaponry and pottery; along with some bronze; silver; gold; and electrum ornamentation items. Bronze brooches are among the presents which were frequently found inside the graves. The favorite metal brooch types are round or spherical headed brooches. The others are oval shaped or pear shaped brooch heads. Split headed and perforated body brooches were found for the first time. Bronze brooches with parallel groove ornamented heads form a large and rich collection following the samples found in Oymaagac; Masathöyük; and Ikiztepe. The groove decorations on the round head of a bronze brooch which was left between the ribs of a skeleton inside a pithos grave from the late phase of EBA was found for the first time in Anatolia. The anklets found both inside the adult's and children's graves are similar to those of Hasanoglan statuette. The daggers that are riveted on one or more locations on its handle; and have armors on their triangle heads; which are very common in the north of Central Anatolia; were found for the first time during the 2005 excavations [Yildirim-Ediz 2007: 216-217]. The types of pins found in 2006 are the similar examples revealed during the previous campaigns. Among these there are vase headed; double maced with the hole in the center; sphere headed pins are particularly important. The conic headed; decorated pin left on the knee of an adult is the first example found during an EBA campaign [Yildirim-Ediz 2008:446]. Some of the bronze vessels left inside the burials are intact; and some were broken and thrown into the burials or among the closure stones. It was found that the ones which were left unbroken were bended by hand and left alongside the chest or arms. The number of sturdy examples is very few. Another one of the examples seen for the first time is a small cup which was left hanging on the pinky. As a result of the analysis it was found that the stannum rate inside the bronze vessels were high. Among the burial gifts there are a few metallic weapons. A bronze wand / mace head and an axe with a handle hole in the axehead are first examples found at Resuloglu. The shape of the axe is the prototype of the handle hole in the axehead which is seen during the Hittite period in Central Anatolia [Yildirim-Ediz:2008:447]. The three disk-formed silver necklace parts assumed to be placed between agate beads in a necklace string that was left among jewelry besides the pithos burial yielded at trench B in 2008 was encountered for the first time at Resuloglu. Besides that a solid and a coated bronze seal-formed two couples of earrings were yielded. Based on 2008 results bronze pins compose the majority of metal jewelry left at Resuloglu graves. Among bronze pins vase-headed, incised or unincised, sphere-headed or pressed-sphere-headed types compose the majority of specimens. The number of bronze collars found inside graves keep increasing. The collar with hook and loop-type ends belongs to a new form [Yildirim-Ipek 2010:27-28]. During the 2011 studies, a bronze awl was recovered from the floor of the Room A of Level 2. Human Remains: It is obvious that the burials in most of the cist graves are in hocker position. Heads are in west or southwest direction and it is same in jar burials too. Stone cist graves mostly contained single burial; but during 2004 season some graves with two different skeletons together were found and 46 graves uncovered. according to the partly preserved skeletons the head was usually at the mouth of the jar. A bronze brooch ornamented with grooves was found on the ankle of a partially preserved skeleton lying in hocker position inside a pithos grave on the partially preserved floor of a room inside the northeastern trench in 2005. A mug outside the pithos grave; and some unbaked loom weights at the bottom of the pithos grave were found [Yildirim-Ediz 2007: 212]. In a trench in the northwest of another building's remains consisting of rectangular plan rooms above the older phase northeast of the trench B; a baby pithos grave was found approximately 1 m below the surface; and this made the total number of such pithos graves to seven in Resuloglu. Most of the pithos graves are baby or newborn graves belonging to the upper level. The vessels which are the imitations of metallic vessels mostly with black coatings; and burnish; were left as burial gifts aside the jugs of which the mouths were shut with thin; flat plate-like andesite stones [Yildirim-Ediz 2007: 213]. Based on the determinations in 2005; the dead were layed inside the pithos graves in hocker position with their feet at the bottom and heads at the rim. Sometimes the opposite practice was observed as well. The dead were usually layed on their left or right sides; their arms were folded at their elbows; and their hands were put at their chin or underneath their head [Yildirim-Ediz 2007: 214]. It was found that some of the burials that were unearthed during the 2006 researches were actually robbed during their own period. Most of the terra cotta or bronze burial gifts were found inside the graves mixed with the soil or around. All of the burials revealed in 2006 are pithos type graves. Most of these were laid in northeast-southwest or east-west direction. Very few were placed in north-south direction. The mouth of the pithoi were closed with flat stones or by placing jugs; as it was the case in the previous periods. It is assumed that the pithoi closure stones were removed for repetitive usage. The fact that some of the large size pithoi were made one by breaking the bottom of one pithos and placing the other one's rim into that bottom to accommodate two burials was explained with the idea that they expected the family members to be together even after death. The length of the pithoi meant for the adults differ between 60-130 cm. The skeletons were mostly found in hocker position. The feet were generally laid on their left side. 1 or 2 burials contained skeletons laying on their back; with the knees drawn to the chests. The arms were mostly bended and hands were left at the level of the chins. The faces either face the left or the south side. At times when the pithos length was not sufficient the skeletton's skull was left outside the pithos and it was covered by a second jug [Yildirim-Ediz 2008:444-445]. The child skeleton found inside plan square E28 placed in east-west direction and hocker position is the only earth-grave unearthed at Resuloglu. The only burial gift that belonged to the child was the necklace that was composed of agate, frit, earthenware and copper beads [Yildirim-Ipek 2010:22-23]. Animal Remains: The excavations performed in 2004 revealed cattle feet left in parallel with the long or narrow sides of some sarcophagi after their closures were closed. The fact that these "bos indicus" type cattles left as gifts bore claws shows that those parts were not eaten nor cooked before they were left with the burial [Yildirim-Ediz 2006:58]. The researches of 2006 revealed the skeleton of a gaur left besides the opening of a pithos; it may be assumed that it was left there as a burial food [http://cat.une.edu.au/page/resuloglu; 29.5.2008; 16.06]. Other: There are also beads made of agate; stone; frit; faience and sea shell among the grave gifts. One of the most interesting of the finds in 2005 is a piece of fiber preserved on a dagger just as in the finds from Ikiztepe and Tekeköy. It was determined following the researches that the fiber was woven with linen; and that the yarns were painted. Besides the fibers for rolling up the weaponry; the traces of fibers in different colors and fabric found in the graves on the metallic jewelry; suggest; that the individuals were buried with their own clothings in Resuloglu [Yildirim-Ediz 2007: 211-217]. Among the jewelry revealed in 2006 the number of the earrings increased. Earrings in the form of stamping seals were made of stones coated with gold; silver or plain gold. Some of the earrings revealed on both sides of the skulls are in parallel with the examples unearthed and identified as buttons at Alaca Höyük burials. Besides the types without decorations there are discus bases; earrings decorated with geometric shapes; or in flower forms which were made of silver or gold. The earring containing a basis in the form of cross is an example specific to Resuloglu. Besides the simple design of beads made of frit; black stones or bronze; the presence of bronze pendants is very common inside the burials in Resuloglu. Some examples possess vivid designs realized by placing sea shells; usonite and bronze beads in between the agates. The source of the agates that were often worked by the inhabitants of Resuloglu should be around Ankara/Çubuk region. The example that consists of porcelain and golden beads containing two plate formed swastikas in the center found in 2006; is a novelty for the region's art. The number of anklets made of massive bronze found in situ on the ankels in most of the graves increase in number [Yildirim-Ediz 2008:446-447]. The alabaster idol found inside a pithos is the only example at Resuloglu. The straps of the idol's dress and the jewelry around its neck were made by incisions [Yildirim-Ediz 2008:447]. A few ornamental pieces found in the small cist grave unearthed in 2009 include a bead with two holes, made of black stone, and saw-formed on two sides are new characteristics for the region [Yildirim-Ipek 2011:349].
Interpretation and Dating: The excavations carried out at Resuloglu cemetery yielded important results about the social life and beliefs in death of a society which is capable of using the metal and raw material in the territory as well as dealing with agriculture and animal breeding [Yildirim-Ediz 2006:59]. It is assumed that the sarcophagi found in the east and southeast near the slope that faces the mound in 2006; which have dimensions outside the standard values (approximately 2 m in length); should be owned by the wealthy class [Yildirim-Ediz 2008:444]. According to a practice related to the burial food; where the bones are found besides the burials this custom which is coincided inside the burials of the princes and princesses at Alaca Höyük suggests that this was also implemented inside the public burials. This custom which identifies the votive ceremony and the burial food also involved also the cutting of the head and feet of the cattle to offer the dead before these were cooked; and the utilization of the rest during the ritual meals eaten for the dead. This way both the dead and the remaining people contributed the ritual meal [Yildirim-Ediz 2008:445]. The bronze pin that was unearthed inside a grave in 2008 suggests that those bend in a particular way, and were revealed below the chin were used for keeping the two sides of the collar together. Besides the hexagon-pyramide-headed-pin yielded at the east slope might be the forthcoming specimen among the ones dated to the 2nd Millennium BC in Central Black Sea Region [Yildirim-Ipek 2010:23].

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