©The Archaeological Settlements of Turkey - TAY Project


For site maps and drawings please click on the picture...


For photographs please click on the photo...

Black Sea
Investigation Method:


It is close to the Sogukçam (Germanos) Village of the Göynük District in Bolu. It is the farthest village from the district center, near the Sakarya Valley, south of Göynük. The inscribed rock rises on a plain ground of 50 m high above the Hamam (Çatak) Stream, 2.5 km west of the village. The site is called Türbe Önü or Yazili Kaya by the local people. It is close to the confluence of Çatak and Çatacik Streams, where the Çatak Stream makes a bend, and the valley gets narrower. At this point, there is a high cape with an abrupt rock on the side facing the stream, which is called Gergef Kaya, housing man-made caves, and overlooking the valley. Türbe Kaya is a conic rock mass, with a height of 8.6 m, and a base of 9.4 m, its eastern façade being engraved. The inscription was engraved on a partly dressed area in the mid-eastern section on the right side. There is a triangular niche on the upper border of the inscription, which is 1.3 m wide, 1.3 m high and 0.5 m deep. There is also a horizontal rectangular alcove beneath the lower line of the inscription. At the level of the lower section there is a small cave, which was in fact natural, but enlarged afterwards by carving on the left side of the inscription. In front of the rock lies a platform, which has been disturbed at several spots due illicit diggings. Consisting of 9 lines, the inscription covers an area of 2.2 m high and 4.3 m long on the southeastern façade of the rock. The last line of the inscription is 1.1 m high above the ground level. The height of letters varies between 0.13 and 0.18 m, and space between lines ranges from 0.8 to 0.2 m. Although it has been partly eroded and damaged, almost all of the letters can be identified. The Phrygian rock monument at Germanos should have been one of the Phrygian rock-cut shrines common in the Highlands of Phrygia. Some wall remains are traced on the Gergef Kaya, which is 100-150 m far from the inscription, inclining slightly towards the west. This point should have been used as a military outpost commanding the Hamam (Çatak) Stream Valley. In addition, some architectural remains were observed, and sherds of Phrygian grey ware were collected from the pits illicitly dug on the hill between the village so called Asar by the villagers and Türbekaya.
Geography and Environment:
Research and Excavation:
Small Finds:
Interpretation and Dating:

To List